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turning is often considered one of the most creative and rewarding
types of woodworking, it can also be one of the most frustrating--especially
for the new or inexperienced woodworker. That's because many projects
require several matching pieces-such as two lamps, four table legs
or a set of salad bowls--and it usually takes quite a bit of practice
to develop the necessary skills to turn these matching pieces by
The lathe duplicator
eliminates this problem and makes it possible for anyone to turn
as many duplicate pieces as they need after only one or two short
practice sessions. In addition, the duplicator allows you to enjoy
the lathe and create freehand turnings without having to learn how
to hold, use or sharpen ordinary lathe chisels.
are possible because of the lathe duplicator's unique design. Instead
of using ordinary chisels, the duplicator has cutters which are
mounted securely to a separate tool rest assembly. A follower with
the same profile is installed directly above the cutter. By guiding
the follower along a template or pattern mounted above the stock,
the cutter will duplicate the profile in the workpiece below.
The Lathe Duplicator mounts on the Mark V. The Mark V accessories
that are used for spindle duplicating are: (A) drive center,
(B) cup center, (C) tailstock and (D) optional steady rest.
For faceplate duplicating a faceplate is mounted on the main
The lathe duplicator
mounts on the Mark V Models 500 and 510 (Figure
13-1). To set up the lathe duplicator follow the instructions
in the Owners Manual that came with the duplicator.
Some of the
important features and capacities of your lathe du-plicator are:
- 34" with cup center
- 33-1/2" with live center and no spacer
- 32" with live center and 1-1/2" spacer
- Minimum spindle
- 6-1/4" with cup center
- 5-3/4" with live center and no spacer
- 4-1/4" with live center and one spacer
- 2-3/4" with live center and two spacers
- Maximum spindle
- 8" for freehand turning or with flat template
- 4" with an original turning as a template
- Maximum bowl
- 8" for freehand turning or with flat template
- Maximum depth
- 2-1/4" for duplication (up to 3-1/4" for light freehand cuts
- 36" maximum length
- 3/8" maximum thickness
- 1/4" minimum thickness (smaller templates only)
is important for all power tools, but accuracy is especially important
with the lathe duplicator. Even a small error in alignment will
cause a variation in the duplicated pieces.
instructions are provided in the Owners Man-ual that came with your
duplicator. The four most critical alignment procedures are summarized
below. These alignments should be checked whenever the lathe duplicator
is set up or if problems occur when making duplicates.
In order to cut properly, the cutter support must be aligned
so that the top of the cutter tip is held parallel to the surface
of the worktable.
Begin by removing
the follower support. Then loosen the nylon cutter guide and slide
it back to expose the flat side of the cutter support rod.
Align the cutter support.
Loosen the front
and rear cutter support setscrews and adjust the center setscrew
so it is lightly seated in the positioning groove of the cutter
support rod. This assures proper protrusion of the cutter tip relative
to the follower tip during duplication.
Place an accurate
square on the tool rest base and adjust the cutter support, so that
the side flat is against the square as shown in Figure
13-2. Then tighten the setscrews, reposition the cutter guide
and replace the follower support.
In order to cut properly, the top edge of the cutter tip must
be aligned with the drive and cup centers.
Align the top edge of the cutter with the tip of the lathe
Begin by placing
the tool rest assembly on the table with the cutter tip facing the
drive center. Adjust the table height until the top edge of the
cutter is aligned with the tip of the drive center as shown in Figure
13-3. Lock the table height.
Then move to
the opposite end of the lathe and check the alignment of the top
edge of the cutter with the cup center (Figure
13-4). Raise or lower the tailstock as needed and lock it in
Align the top edge of the cutter with the tip of the lethe
raising or lowering the tailstock will alter the normal center-to-center
alignment of the lathe, overall performance of the duplicator will
not be affected. Correct cutter height is extremely important when
using the lathe duplicator. If you plan to switch back and forth
to conventional lathe turning, you may want to put a pencil mark
on the tailstock mounting tubes, so you can easily return to the
normal alignment position.
For accurate duplication, the template centers must be aligned with
the drive and cup centers.
Align the template center. Step 1 Click on image to see larger
the left hand template bracket mounting screw and slide the template
bracket in the channel until the tip of the template center is even
with the tip of the drive center, then tighten the template bracket
mounting screw (Figure
the two cap screws, so that the template center can be positioned
directly over the drive center. Check this alignment with a square
placed both in front of and behind the centers. When the alignment
is correct, tighten the two cap screws (Figure
Align the template center, Step 2. Click on image to see larger
procedure to align the cup center with the other template center.
to Cutter Alignment
For accurate duplication, the follower tip must be directly above
the cutter tip.
Align the follower to the cutter. Click on image to see larger
Begin by adjusting
the height of the follower tip until it is even with the template
center. Wiggle the follower support rod as you tighten the knob
to be sure the screw is seated on the flat of the upright support
the setscrew for the follower upright. Align the cutter tip with
the cup center and the follower tip with the template center. Tighten
the setscrew on the upright (Figure
Five cutters handle a variety of profiles. (A) 1/2" Round,
(B) 3/8" Square, (C) 35° Diamond, (D) 60° Triangle,
and (E) 1/2" Cone.
A total of five
different cutters are available for the lathe duplicator and each
cutter is supplied with a matching nylon follower tip which traces
the profile of the template or pattern during duplication.
All of the cutters
except the cone cutter are made of carbide and will stay sharp for
many hours of turning. Warning: Never attempt to grind these
carbide cutters because the dust can produce eye and skin irritation
as well as respiratory system and internal organ damage.
are shown in Figure
13-8 and are described below:
Cutter-This is the best cutter for initial shaping. It is also
very good for forming graceful curves, cove cuts and dishing.
Cutter-The square cutter may be used for rough shaping, but
it is best for turning square corners, grooves, short dowels, plugs
and straight profiles. It is a good choice for forming tenons when
making multi-section turnings.
Cutter-Best for turning fine beads, deep grooves, sharp corners
and intricate detail because the narrow tip allows greater penetration.
Cutter-This is often considered the universal cutter because
of its versatility. It produces good results in work ranging from
rough shaping down to medium detail.
The traingle cutter can be mounted with the point or a flat
side facing the workpiece.
triangle cutter is mounted with the point facing the workpiece,
however, it may also be used with a flat side facing the work if
a square cutter is not available (Figure
Cutter-The cone cutter is recommended for spindle turning only.
It cuts quickly for rough shaping and is ideal for fin-ishing cuts
when the shape of the turning permits.
The four carbide
cutters cut with a scraping action and produce a somewhat rough
surface. The cone cutter, however, is made of steel and has a sharpened
edge which shaves the wood instead of scraping it away. This allows
the cone cutter to cut faster and more smoothly, but the cutting
edge will not last as long as the carbide cutters. Warning: The
cone cutter is not recommended for faceplate work because its sharp
cutting edge tends to bite too deeply into the end grain of the
To get the
longest life from the cone cutter, divide the tip into quarters
and use one section of the cutting edge until it is dull. Then mark
that section with a colored marker and rotate the tip 90° to
the next section. Sharpen or replace the cone cutter when the entire
edge becomes dull.
Characteristics of Common Woods
lathe duplicator cutters cut with a scraping action, the density
and grain structure of the wood will affect the quality of the turned
surface and the amount of sanding required. Generally speaking,
the best results will be achieved with very hard woods which have
straight, even, closed grains. Softer woods or those with pronounced
annual rings often chip, tear and feather and will re-quire considerably
Refer to Table
13-1 to find the turning characteristics of various common woods.
13-1: Turning Characteristics of Common Woods
birch, cherry, hard maple, rosewood, ebony, Honduran mahogany
hard, consistent woods with tight, closed grain pattern.
soft maple, Philippine mahagony, teak, and many fruitewoods
softer woods or those with more open grain structure.
oak, hickory, ash, sassafras, red cedar, white pine, sugar pine
woods or those with open or stringy grain structure.
balsa, cypress, redwood, yellow pine, western cedar
soft woods with open, stringy or irregular grain.
using the lathe duplicator, read and understand these important
- Wear proper
eye and ear protection.
- Keep your
hands, fingers and other parts of your body at least 2" away from
the rotating workpiece until it is rounded. After It is rounded,
use caution when you get close to the rotating workpiece. Do not
touch the workpiece as it turns.
- Keep the
guard In place whenever you are performing turning operations.
Position it not more than 1/2" from the workpiece.
- When turning
glued-up stock, make sure the glue joints are strong. Glue the
stock and leave it clamped for at least 24 hours prior to turning.
- Wear proper
apparel. Never wear jewelry, gloves, ties, loose clothing or clothing
with long sleeves. Keep long hair tucked under a hat. Jewelry,
gloves, ties, clothing and hair could become entangled in the
- When mounting
stock between the centers, the spurs of the drive center and the
cup of the tailstock center must penetrate at least 1/16" into
the stock. Do not use a drive center or tailstock center if the
point is damaged. The stock could be thrown from the lathe.
- Wax or soap
the end of the stock that mounts to the cup center. This lubrication
helps keep the center from wearing into the stock and causing
the stock to loosen on the lathe. The ball bearing live center
is highly recommended for use with the lathe duplicator.
- When mounting
stock to a faceplate, use #12 x 1-1/4" long screws. The screws
must penetrate at least 1" into the stock. The surface of the
stock that's against the faceplate must be smooth and true.
- Cut faceplate
stock round and spindle stock that's more than 3" square into
an octagon. This removes excess stock, minimizes imbalance, reduces
vibration and makes turning large diameter stock safer and easier.
- Check the
balance of the workpiece. Prior to mounting workpieces more than
3" in diameter, check and adjust the center of balance (dynamic
center). Unbalanced workpieces could be thrown from the lathe.
- Do not turn
on the power with the cutter or any part of the tool rest assembly
against the workpiece. Turn on the machine and let it come up
to speed before starting the cut.
- Do not stand
In the line of rotation of the workpiece when you first turn on
the machine. If the machine is set on the wrong speed or the workpiece
is unbalanced or improperly mounted, the workpiece could be thrown
from the lathe.
- Feed the
cutter slowly into the workpiece. Use both hands to hold onto
and control the tool rest assembly.
turn off the machine and check that the workpiece is held securely
between the centers or on the faceplate.
- Do not lean
across or reach underneath the lathe while it is running.
- Do not try
to stop the lathe by grabbing the stock or any part of the machine.
Do not part the stock completely or turn the spindle down to such
a small diameter that it snaps on the lathe. This can be extremely
- Do not turn
stock with splits, loose knots, or other defects that could cause
the stock to break, splinter or come loose while turning. Never
turn second-hand lumber. If you hit a nail or screw, you could
be hit by pieces of metal.
- Remove the
lathe duplicator components from the Mark V before sanding or
finishing a workpiece on the lathe.
- Do not grind
the carbide cutters. The dust created by grinding the carbide
can cause eye and skin irritation as well as respiratory system
and internal organ damage.
- Do not allow
the cutter to come in contact with the parts of the lathe duplicator
or Mark V. The cutter will cause damage to the parts and you could
be hit by pieces of metal.
with all Mark V accessories, selecting the proper speed dial setting
is important to help prevent damage to the equipment or injury to
the operator. Generally, when using the lathe duplicator, slower
speeds are used for large stock or during initial rounding operations
and then the speed is increased for final shaping and sanding.
Refer to Table
13-2 to determine the correct speed for each operation.
13-2: Lathe Duplicator Speed Chart
to 2" dia.
to 4" dia.
to 6" dia.
These speeds are for 60 hz. operations.
Spindles are duplicated from flat templates.
support assemblies of the lathe duplicator are designed to hold
either flat templates or three dimensional patterns. Flat templates
are used for duplicating either spindles (Figure
13-10) or faceplate turnings. Three dimensional patterns are
generally used only for duplicating spindles (Figure
13-11). Although it is sometimes possible to use an existing
turning as a pattern for faceplate work, the original must usually
be destroyed in order to mount a cross-section of it above the workpiece.
Spindles are also duplicated from an existing turning.
A three dimensional
pattern can be an original turning-such as a table leg which you
have just created by freehand turning-or it could be a spindle from
an antique chair you are trying to repair or reproduce. It could
even be a broken piece which has been glued back together to serve
as a pattern. Appearance isn't important, but shape is, because
every defect in the profile of the pattern will be duplicated in
There are four lines on all templates which are absolutely essential.
which is used to locate the template in the template clamps directly
over the center of the workpiece. This is the most important line
on the template.
- End lines
show the end of the final piece and allow you to make certain
enough stock is available at each end to complete the turning.
line which guides the follower tip while the cutter tip duplicates
the shape in the workpiece.
A typical spindle template showing important dimensions and
its finished product. Click on image to see larger view.
To prevent interference,
spindle templates should have 2" of extra stock at each end (Figure
13-12). They may, however, be secured with only one setscrew
in each clamp. Faceplate templates must be at least 3-1/2" wide,
so that both setscrews will engage the template (Figure
For some faceplate
turnings- such as a thin-walled bowl-one template may not be practical
because it would be too fragile. In these cases, you will need separate
templates for the inside and outside profiles-or you can make one
template with two centerlines (Figure
13-14) and reposition it after turning the outer profile. In
either case, accurate construction is extremely important.
A typical faceplate template showing important dimensions
and its finished product
After a template
has been mounted and you are sure its position is correct, you can
drill a 1/4" locating hole through the template clamp (Figure
13-15). The template can then be removed and replaced very accurately
by inserting a 1/4" dowel through the centering hole in the template
clamp and template.
A template with two centerlines for making a thin-walled bowl.
be made from a variety of materials. Probably the most popular and
economical choice is 1/4" thick tempered hardboard. It is hard and
durable and yet it is easy to cut and sand.
accuracy and durability, use sheet acrylic materials. Although somewhat
more difficult to cut and sand, acrylic templates will last almost
indefinitely. After an acrylic template has been cut and shaped,
scribe the critical lines into its surface. Then remove the paper
covering. The clear template allows light to shine through the template
and eliminates shadows on the workpiece. For better visibility,
you can also accent the profile edge of the template with a colored
Drill a locating hole when template will be removed and used
also be made of wood if thin stock or a thickness planer is available.
Hard, closed grain woods are best. Softer, more open grained woods
are not recommended because the template is easily dented or chipped
and becomes useless.
Templates are made by creating a full size drawing of the turning,
attaching the drawing to suitable stock with rubber cement and then
cutting out the profile with a bandsaw, jigsaw or scroll saw.
If your project
plans are not full size, they must be enlarged. This may be done
by using a grid system to scale up the drawing or by using a pantograph
to trace and enlarge the image. Even more accurate enlargements
can be made with a copier machine. When you have your full size
drawing, check to be sure the available cutters will fit into any
narrow grooves or profiles.
When cutting out the template, plan your cuts to avoid tight
turns. Click on image to see larger view.
Once the full
size drawing has been attached to the template stock, cut out the
template (Figure 13-16).
Note that the first cuts to be made are relief cuts that let waste
stock fall away as you cut the profile. This helps keep the blade
from binding in tight spots and lets you make each cut more precisely.
Next cut each
section of the profile staying slightly outside the line to leave
a little stock for final sanding. Use multiple cuts whenever necessary
to avoid difficult turns with the blade. The profiles will be smoother
with less sanding required.
to the profile lines until the template is perfectly smooth. This
can be done with sandpaper, triangle and half round files, or even
an emery board. Remember that any bump or chip in the profile edge
will be duplicated in your final turning.
Use centering hole to align template
includes any turning where the workpiece is held between the drive
center and tail-stock center. Warning: When mounting spindles,
it is important for the drive center and tailstock center to be
driven at least 1/16" into the ends of the stock. Although the
tailstock live center is recommended for use with the lathe duplicator,
the standard cup center should be used for scoring the end of the
stock. Caution: Driving the live center into the stock with a mallet
will damage the bailbearings in the live center.
Seat template centers securely in the pattern.
Mount the template
or pattern above the workpiece as shown in your Lathe Duplicator
Owners Manual. If you are using a flat template, the centerline
should be visible through the centering holes (Figure
13-17) and the end of the template should fit securely inside
the template clamps.
Corners of square sections must face the follower tip.
If you are using
a three dimensional pattern, rotate the template brackets and seat
the tips of the template centers securely into the ends of the pattern
so it cannot turn during duplication. If your pattern includes a
square section such as the top of a table leg, the square corner
must face the follower tip, not the flat side (Figure
Make certain both end lines are inside the ends of the workpiece.
Make sure the
end lines of the template or pattern are inside the ends of the
13-20). Adjust the location of the template brackets if necessary.
the guard. It should be within 1/2" of the stock and just high enough
for the cutter to reach the workpiece.
Turn on the Mark V and set the speed dial to the proper speed. Grasp
the handles of the tool rest assembly and advance the cutter into
the stock until it begins to cut. You can be aggressive, but do
not force the cutter in so hard that it stops the workpiece.
Round off the
corners, working in small sections from one end of the stock toward
the other until it is completely rounded. If you are working on
a long workpiece, round one area then turn off the Mark V and reposition
the table and guard. Warning: Check to be sure the stock is still
securely mounted. Then continue rounding.
The cutter tip may be retracted for rough shaping to leave
stock for detailing.
shaping you should leave about 1/32" of stock for removal during
final detailing. This may be done by keeping the follower tip away
from the template, but if you are new to the duplicator you may
want to retract the cutter to avoid mistakes (Figure
To retract the
cutter, loosen the three setscrews that hold the cutter support
and turn the cutter adjusting knob one-half turn counterclockwise.
Press the cutter support back against the adjusting stud and
tighten the front and rear setscrews only. The center setscrew
cannot seat in the positioning groove when the cutter support is
To begin shaping,
move the table and guard to either end of the workpiece. Turn on
the Mark V and set the speed dial to the proper speed.
Start by shaping
the larger diameters and then progress to the smaller ones. Don't
force the cutter into the stock or press so hard that you deflect
the turning. Use a steady rest (Figure 13-1) to support long or
Keep the follower perpendicualr to profile of the template
during rough shaping.
Use a back and
forth motion, working down into each contour. Also keep the follower
perpendicular to the profile of the template (Figure
13-22), so extra stock will be left on all surfaces.
When you are
cutting properly, you will produce large chips, not fine dust or
a burnished surface. If cutting is slow, check the table height
adjustment to be sure the cutting edge is even with or slightly
below the centerline of the turning or lathe centers.
If you have retracted the cutter for rough shaping, it should be
readjusted before making your final passes. Be sure that the center
setscrew is seated in the positioning groove of the cutter support,
so that the cutter is exactly even with the follower. Align the
cutter sup-port as described earlier and tighten all three setscrews.
Cut in an "uphill" direction when detailing beads
and coves. Click on image for larger view.
requires a certain "art", but the duplicator makes it easy to learn.
Use a light touch and move the cutter in an "uphill" direction when
shaping beads and coves (Figure
13-23). The smoothest surface is usually produced by dragging
the cutter sideways-not by approaching the workpiece with the point
of the cutter.
Also be careful
not to press so hard that you deflect the template or rock the base
of the tool rest assembly. If you do happen to make a mistake, don't
panic. It is often possible to save the turning by removing the
follower and smoothing out the mistake by turning freehand. Although
the piece will not be an exact duplicate, slight variations may
not be noticeable in the final project.
You can turn duplicate pieces even if a template or pattern is mounted
slightly out of alignment, but some projects require turning to
an exact diameter. Creating a tenon for joining a spindle and faceplate
or sections of a long bedpost are two examples.
To verify the
alignment, turn a flat area at the desired location, but leave enough
stock so that the follower tip does not contact the template. (The
cutter must be in its normal position-not retracted.)
Checking for exact diameter. Follower tip to template centerline
should be exactly half the diameter of the turning.
Use a good set
of calipers to accurately measure the turned diameter. Then measure
from the follower tip to the centerline of the template (Figure
13-24). If the alignment is correct, this distance will be exactly
one half the diameter of the turning. If not, make any necessary
adjustments before proceeding. For very critical work it is a good
idea to make a practice turning from scrap stock to verity the setup
before turning the actual project pieces. Note: The tailstock chuck
arbor is useful for drilling mating holes for joining two or more
After all turning and sanding on the lathe has been completed, remove
the turning from the lathe and use a bandsaw or coping saw to trim
off the scrap at the end of the workpiece. Warning: Do not part
the stock completely on the lathe.
If you wish
to cut a square shoulder where the stock will be parted, use the
square cutter or reverse the mounting of the triangle cutter and
use its side.
are made with the stock mounted to a faceplate which is attached
to the Mark V main spindle. Follow the instructions in Chapter 12
when mounting faceplate turnings.
Make sure the workpiece does not have loose knots, splits or defects.
Use #12 x 1-1/4" or larger screws to attach the stock to the faceplate.
Allow glue joints to dry for at least 24 hours and cut the stock
round on the bandsaw before turning.
All faceplate turning should be done at the far right end of the
Mark V. Remove the right-hand template support. Move the table as
far to the right as it will go and reposition the power plant and
left-hand template assembly.
The template end line should be inside the end of the workpiece.
Mount the template
in the template assembly with the edge of the template firmly seated
against the spacer in the clamp. Then tighten the two setscrews
to hold the template securely. Accurate alignment of the template
is extremely important to assure accurate diameters and eliminate
unplanned tapers in the final turning.
Setup for faceplate turning with the guard extending over
Loosen the template
bracket screw and position the template over the workpiece. Use
the tool rest assembly as an alignment gauge to be sure the end
line on the template is inside the left edge of the workpiece (Figure
13-25). Tighten the template bracket screw.
and adjust the guard (Figure
13-26). Warning: The brackets should be attached to the left
and center slots of the guard and the guard should extend from the
power plant over the workpiece. Adjust the guard so it is as
close to the workpiece as possible and just high enough for the
cutter to pass freely underneath it.
Turn on the Mark V and set the speed dial to the proper speed. Grasp
the handles of the tool rest assembly. Warning: Do not extend
your fingers beyond the front edge of the base.
the outside edges, working in small areas at a time, until the workpiece
is completely rounded. Then, if the right-hand face is rough or
not parallel with the faceplate, move around to the end of the machine
and straighten this face.
The techniques for rough shaping faceplate workpieces are very much
like those for spindles. Work in small areas, beginning with the
larger diameters. The cutter may be retracted to leave some stock
for final detailing.
If you are cutting
properly, you will see large chips. As the profile takes shape,
these chips will become curled shavings often several inches long.
should rough shape the outside profile and then begin roughing the
inside contour. The exception is when you are working on a project-such
as a thin walled bowl-where two templates or two centerlines are
required for the outside and inside profiles.
In these cases,
it is usually easier to continue with final detailing of the outside
profile before beginning on the inside. This will eliminate having
to reposition the templates for final shaping. If repositioning
will be necessary, drill the 1/4" alignment hole (Figure
13-15) before removing the template and be sure the setscrews
return to exactly the same in-dentions in the template.
Work " uphill" on beads and coves; "downhill"
from sharp shoulders
cutter if it has been retracted and begin cutting with a light touch.
Work "uphill" on beads and coves, but "downhill" when shaping from
the top of a sharp shoulder into a round profile (Figure
Undercutting involves cutting an inside diameter that is larger
than the opening. This is quite common in salad bowls and similar
projects where the middle is wider than the top or bottom.
Undercutting the indise of a bowl.
tool rest lets you make undercuts with only minor limitations (Figure
13-28). First is the limit of the cutting angle you can achieve
before the tool rest base runs into the turning. Second is the depth
of the undercut before the lip of the turning begins to rub on the
underside of the cutter support. These limitations are reduced as
the size of the turning increases. In some cases, you can increase
the undercut by extending the cutter support up to one inch and
making light passes freehand.
If you are making
a number of spindle and faceplate turnings, these tips will help
speed up the job and eliminate needless work.
each operation on all pieces before moving to the next. For example,
prepare all the stock, make all the turnings, plus sand and finish
all the parts.
three or four turn-ings on extra faceplates will be faster than
removing and remounting each piece.
- When using
different cutters for rough turning and final detailing, rough
shape all turnings before changing tips or getting an extra tool
- Drill centering
holes in templates to speed up remounting and realignment.
You can do freehand turning with the lathe duplicator.
is very much like duplicating except no template or pattern is required.
You can shape the piece any way you imagine it (Figure
13-29). The setup is the same except that the template brackets,
the follower and the follower upright support are removed. Leave
the channel assembly and guard in place.
When you sand on the lathe, fold quarter sheets of sandpaper
into thirds to protect your fingers from the heat build-up.
finishing a turning are much easier done on the lathe than removing
it and finishing it by hand. Warning: Before you start, remove
all lathe duplicator components. Caution: Lay a cloth over the
way tubes to catch grit and finish.
use quarter sheets of sandpaper folded into thirds. This gives you
a rigid piece, yet it will bend to fit the shape of the turning
and the thickness helps protect your fingers from heat build-up
Warning: Never wrap sandpaper, steel wool or a rag around the
turning and never use a rag with frayed edges. They could easily
pull your fingers into the workpiece.
Turn the Mark
V on and set the speed dial to the correct speed. Begin working
with new 100-grit paper and light pressure. Then switch to used
100-grit paper. Finish sanding with new and used 150-grit paper.
For open grain woods, wet the surface to raise the grain between
sandpaper changes. Allow the water to dry before sanding.
For a smoother
surface and reduced sanding time, dismount the spindle, turn it
end-for-end and sand in the opposite direction. Warning: When remounting
the stock, be sure to put enough pressure on the quill to engage
both the drive and cup centers. You can reverse the rotation of
a faceplate turning by mounting the faceplate on the upper auxiliary
use avery low speed and prepare a natural oil finish with the stain
mixed in. Polyurethane is not recommended because it will dry too
quickly. Mask any areas to be glued later.
Soak a rag and
a piece of fine, slightly used wet/dry sandpaper in the finish.
Use the rag to apply the finish to the turning. Then sand. Repeat,
adding more finish until a mixture of finish and sanding dust covers
the entire turning. Rub this paste with your hands and let it set
for a minute or two or until it becomes sticky. Then buff the turn-ing
and let it dry. Apply additional coats of finish, but do not sand.