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is designed to quickly and accurately accomplish many operations
that would require many hours of tedious labor if done by hand.
It's a rotary cutter that will plane edges smooth and square, ready
for gluing or assembling. It will do a fine job on light surfacing
cuts also, but should not be confused with the planer, as jointers
often are. The planer is designed to dress stock to exact thicknesses
and perfectly parallel surfaces. The jointer is used to square edges
to surfaces and straighten surfaces.
The Jointer can be mounted on (A) the MARK V or on (B) a Shopsmith
To set up your
jointer, follow the instructions in the Owners Manual that came
with your jointer. As you work with the jointer, you'll find that
it has several special features:
- The jointer
mounts on the Mark V or a Shopsmith Power Stand (Figure 6-1).
- The dust
chute will allow you to connect the hose from your dust collection
system to the jointer. Since most heavy-duty dust collection systems
have fairly strong motors, you should not plug a dust collection
system into the same circuit as the Mark V.
- The width
of cut is a full 4".
- The depth
of cut is adjustable from "0" to 3/8". The maximum depth of cut
for most operations is 1/8". When surfacing, the maximum depth
of cut is 1/16". You can make full use of the 3/8" depth of cut
in stages when performing special operations.
- The infeed
table is 5-5/8" wide by 13-1/4" long. The outfeed table is 4-1/2"
wide by 13-5/16" long. Together, the overall table length is 28".
- The fence
is 3" high and 21-3/4" long. It tilts 45° to either the left or
right and has adjustable positive auto-stops at 45° right, 90°,
and 45° left. It may be positioned anywhere over the cutterhead.
Also, the fence has predrilled 1/4" holes, making it easy to add
fence extensions to help support wide stock.
- The cutterhead
is 2-1/2" in diameter, with three precision-ground steel knives.
It's equipped with individual knife leveling screws so that you
don't have to match-grind each knife.
- The jointer
can make the cuts and joints shown in Figure
The cuts and shapes listed here can be formed on the jointer.
(A) chamfer; (B) tenon; (C) bevel; (D) taper; (E) edge
rabbet; (F) end rabbet; (G) surfacing (cut depth exaggerated
for clarity); and (H) furniture let (example). Click on
image for larger view.
Depth of Cut
Never try to
remove more than 1/8" at a time when edge jointing or 1/16" When
surfacing. If you follow this rule, you'll get a much smoother cut
and waste less wood. Most finishing cuts on the jointer are made
with settings of 1/32" or less.
The 3/8" maximum
setting is used only for special operations such as rabbeting (even
then the stock must be removed in several shallow cuts).
When you set
the depth of cut, always make your adjustment from a greater to
a lesser depth. For instance, if the jointer is set to cut 1/16"
deep, but you want it to cut 1/8" deep, turn the adjustment knob
clockwise until the pointer goes past the 1/8" mark on the depth-of-cut
scale. Then turn the knob counterclockwise until the pointer rests
on the 1/8" mark.
takes up any "slack" in the depth-of-cut adjustment mechanism. If
you don't set the depth of cut from greater to lesser, there's a
good chance the infeed table will move slightly during the pass
and you'll get an uneven cut.
Before using the jointer, read and understand these important safety
jointer danger zone is 3" out from the cutterhead and knives and
8' directly in front of the cutterhead. When you use the jointer,
stand to the left of the machine (opposite the drive shaft) and
keep your hands away from the knives.
- Always wear
proper eye and ear protection.
- Never remove
the guards to increase the capacity.
- Use a push
stick or push block to move stock past the cutterhead especially
when the stock is lower than the top of the fence.
- Never remove
more than 1/8" at a time when edge jointing or 1/16" when surfacing.
- Always lock
the fence. If your jointer is mounted on the Mark V, secure the
accessory mount lock, power plant lock and the eccentric mounting
- Never joint
or surface stock less than 10" long or more than 4" wide, edge
rabbet stock wider than 1", surface stock less than 1/4" thick
or joint the end grain of stock less than 10 "wide.
- Never joint
'secondhand' lumber. You could be hit by pieces of nails, screws,
etc. Also, never joint or surface painted or dirty wood, plywood,
particle board or other hard materials.
- Support long
stock with roller stand(s).
- Turn off
the power before making any adjustment, tightening the accessory
mount lock or clearing wood chips.
- If an unusual
noise, vibration or uneven cut occurs, turn off the jointer and
check the wedge locking screws immediately.
- When using
the saw-jointer combination, make sure the upper and lower saw
guards are mounted on the Mark V.
- Knives that
have been reground to less than 11/16" (.6875") wide should not
- Use only
Shopsmith Jointer knives in the Shopsmith Jointer. Other brands
of knives are not wedge-shaped and will not seat properly in the
cutterhead. Using other brands of knives is very dangerous.
- If you're
using a Shopsmith Power Stand, be sure you're using the proper
pulley and belt combination and that the pulley and belt are properly
Before you begin
any jointer operation turn on the Mark V, set the speed dial according
to Table 6-1, and let the jointer come up to speed
The deeper the
cut or the harder the wood, the slower you should run the jointer.
If the jointer runs too slow, you may get a rough cut, so you'll
want to experiment with scrap until you can select the proper speed
for the stock you're jointing.
6-1: Jointer Speed Chart
These speeds are for 60 hz. operations. Because the Jointer
mounts on the lower auxiliary spindle, the rpm is 1.6 times
faster than for the upper auxiliary and main spindles.
The jointer can be used in combination with the MARK V table
saw. Warning: Be sure the upper and lower saw guards are in
The Mark V was
designed so that the table saw and the jointer can be used in combination
(Figure 6-3). When
the speed dial is set at "Saw-Joint," the power plant runs each
tool at the proper speed. Warning: Be sure the upper and lower
saw guards are mounted on the Mark V.
To square the
edges, joint one edge of a board before beginning any sawing operation.
This produces a smooth, straight edge to place against the rip fence
and assures a straight, parallel cut. When you're ripping, cut the
stock slightly oversize so that you can also joint the second edge.
Always try to work so you are cutting with the grain of wood;
when this isn't possible, make very light cuts, very slowly.
Note: The depth of cut is exaggerated for clarity.
The edging cut
is made by moving the stock so the knives will be cutting with the
grain of the wood (Figure
6-4). Warning: Working against the grain seldom produces
a satisfactory surface; it also increases the danger of kickback
If the cutting
action is not smooth or if you feel the stock pushing back against
your hands, the chances are that you are working against the grain.
Stop the pass immediately and reverse the position of the stock.
If you have
to make a cut against the grain, take a very light cut and make
the pass very, very slowly.
settings on edge jointing cuts never should exceed 1/8". A setting
of from 1/32" to 1/16" usually does the best job and wastes less
(A) Begin the cut using your left hand to steady the stock
and your right hand to feed it forward. (B) As the stock nears
the halfway point, reposition your left hand to the outfeed
side of the jointer. (C) Continue to steady the stock with
your left hand while you move your right hand to the outfeed
table. Finish the cut by pushing the end of the stock past
the cutterhead with both hands.
jointing cut is a smooth movement from start to finish, it may be
thought of in the three steps shown in Figure 6-5. The better side
of the stock is placed against the fence with the work edge down
on the infeed table. Hands should be placed to hold the stock down
on the table and snugly against the fence. The left hand holds the
stock down 4" to 6" before the first bump on the top of the fence
and guides the stock. This permits both side and down pressure to
hold the stock firmly against the fence and flat on the table. The
right hand is placed near the end of the stock and feeds the stock
forward. Warning: If the stock is below the top of the fence,
always use a push stick or push block to complete the pass.
As the stock
moves over the cutterhead, the guard moves aside to permit its passage.
The left hand does most of the work of keeping the stock snug against
the fence and down on the table, while the right hand moves it forward.
Always try to keep hands hooked over the top of the stock. Warning:
Do not allow your hands to pass directly over the cutterhead.
At the end of
the cut, the hands are still in about the same position on the stock.
Avoid heavy downward pressure at the end of the cut, since this
might tilt the stock into the cutter, resulting in a gouged end.
When jointed boards are butted edge-to-edge, they should have
If the machine
is properly ad-justed and the pass is made correctly, the jointed
board will have edges that are square with its face. Edges of a
group of jointed boards will fit against each other without gaps,
checking out in all respects shown in Figure 6-6.
The high fence extension provides extra support when you are
jointing extra-wide stock.
that project sign ificantly above the top of the fence require careful
handling so they won't tilt as you make the pass. The best way to
joint extrawide stock is to equip the jointer with an extra-high
(even extra-long) fence extension that you can bolt in place using
the two holes that are in the fence.
are then made in normal fashion but with extra support provided
by the fence extension to keep the stock from tilting (Figure
Construction details of a fence extension. Click on image
for larger view.
6-8 shows how the fence extension is made. The height may vary
according to its intended use. For example, a high fence is very
helpful for jointing wide boards because it makes it easier to be
sure the face is flat on the fence, and the edge is therefore going
to be cut square to the fence.
Jointing Problem Stock
(A) The concave edge of a dished board can be straightened
by making several light cuts. (B) When a board has an uneven
edge, joint the opposite edge first. Next rip cut the uneven
edge, then joint.
Stock with knots,
"wild grain," or extensive figuring is always difficult to joint;
therefore, it requires extra care. For best results, feed the stock
slowly and take very light cuts. Warning: Be especially cautious
of kickbacks and stop cutting immediately if the stock will not
stock that is distorted like the piece shown in Figure
6-9A should be jointed on the dished edge first. This is to
provide adequate bearing surface for the jointing cuts that will
produce one even edge so the stock may be ripped parallel on the
Use extra care when a curved edge must be jointed, since only a
small area of the edge will bear on the table surface. The first
pass will provide a flat area that will facilitate subsequent passes.
one uneven edge, as shown in Figure
6-9B, is handled by jointing the one straight edge first. This
edge rides against the rip fence and is rip cut to remove the uneven
edge; then the rip cut edge is jointed.
apply to stock that has minor edge imperfections. Warning: Don't
waste time on badly distorted material. It can be dangerous and
you may not have much material left after the distorted areas are
removed. It's a good rule to joint only good lumber.
reduce splintering, (A) make one pass to about this point;
then (B) turn the stock end-for-edn and make a second pass
until it meets the first one which, here, is indicated by
the arrow. Note: The guard is removed and the depth of cut
is exaggerated for clarity.
End grain jointing
is always difficult because you're jointing at the worst possible
angle to the grain. For most projects, end jointing is not even
necessary. But when you need to do it, follow these steps:
Take very light
cuts (1/32" or less) and feed the work as slowly as is practical.
Check to be sure the jointer knives are sharp or they may burn the
end grain during the cut. Joint the ends before jointing the edges
so that any minor splintering will be removed. Splintering can also
be reduced by jointing about 2" in from one side, then reversing
the piece to complete the cut (Figure 6-10). You may also want to
score the wood fibers at the very end of the cut with a chisel or
utility knife before jointing.
When all four edges of a piece of stock must be jointed, follow
the pass sequence shown here. The final passes will remove
the imperfections caused by cross-grain cutting.
When four edges
of a piece of stock are to be jointed, the operation may be done
as shown in Figure 6-11. The first and second cuts-across the grain-can
be accomplished with single passes; the third and fourth cuts-with
the grain-will remove the slight imperfections resulting from the
first two cross-grain cuts.
A push block will help maintain even pressure, give better
control over the stock, and keep your hands out of the danger
the face of a piece of stock-is usually done for one of three reasons:
to smooth up a rough surface, to thin down a workpiece, or to remove
a warp. Always use extra care when you surface because the top of
the work is below the top of the fence and your hands are close
to the danger zone. Warning: Always use a push stick or push blocks
to move the stock over the cutterhead. Never try to surface a piece
of stock less than 12" long or 1/4" thick. If you need a smaller
component for a project, do your jointer work on a larger piece
and cut off what you need.
for handling and feeding the stock is similar to edge jointing.
However, since the stock lies flat on the table below the top of
the fence, always use a push stick or push blocks (Figure
6-12). They help you to maintain even pressure, give you better
control over the stock, and help keep your hands out of the danger
zone. As you get used to using a push stick and push blocks, you'll
find they may actually improve your woodworking. Since a push stick
or a push block keeps your fingers safe, you feel more confident
while making a cut. This confidence helps you achieve better control,
and better control means a better cut.
If you are
using push blocks with sponge rubber bottoms, you may want to modify
the hand movements when cutting. Use your left hand to position
the push block about midway along the infeed table and move the
push block forward with the stock while maintaining downward pressure.
As the push block starts to enter the danger zone, stop the feed,
bring the left hand back to its starting point, and then continue.
With a little practice, these short movements can be made without
affecting the quality of the cut.
The seven steps and machines used to square up the six surfaces
of a peice of stock.
6-13 shows the sequence of cuts if a board must be squared on
all six sides. First straighten one surface using the jointer, then
plane the second surface parallel to the first using the planer.
Then joint one edge to straighten it with the jointer depth set
to remove no more than 1/16" per pass. Place the jointed edge against
the table saw rip fence. Rip to width plus 1/16". With the jointer
set to remove 1/16" ,joint the sawn edge. Crosscut one end. Remove
just enough to square up the end. Measure to length and crosscut
the other end.
Cupped boards, if they are narrow enough and the cup is not
extreme, can be jointed in this manner.
defects such as cupping or wind must have special attention if they
are to be surfaced safely and with a minimum loss of stock.
A cupped board
is dished across its width as shown in Figure
6-14; its high points provide some bearing surface when the
board is placed concave-side-down on the table (Figure
6-15). Keep the board as level as possible during the first
pass; after that it will have a "flat" to provide bearing surface.
The high points provide some bearing surface when the cupped
board is placed concave-side down on the table.
procedure to use when the thickness of the stock permits is to resaw
the stock after the jointer has established a flat surface for the
rip fence. This will roughly surface the second side parallel to
the first one. The saw marks can then be removed with a light surfacing
This type of distortion, called "wind," is indicated
by a twist in the length of the stock.
wind (Figure 6-16)
have a twist in the length of the stock. The best way to level such
a board is to mark the high spots and remove them in the first pass,
creating flat spots on which the board can rest. Warning: Don't
waste time on badly distorted material. It can be dangerous and
you may not have much material left after the distorted areas are
removed. It's a good rule to joint only good wood.
Bevels are formed with the fence tilted over the knives.
By tilting the
jointer fence, you can make smooth, accurate angular cuts for a
variety of projects (Figure
6-17). Be sure the machine is off; then push the fence lock
handle in and unlock the fence tilt. Adjust the fence to the desired
angle, and relock the fence securely.
work with a closed angle fence tilted over the knives, because it's
easier to prevent slips and loss of control with this setup. Take
shallow cuts with each pass. The face of the bevel will get wider
with each cut; eventually reaching across the edge. However, if
the stock is thick, the fence may have to be tilted backwards so
it forms an open angle with the tables. Warning: When the fence
is tilted backwards work with extreme caution. Hold the stock so
it won't slide out from under your hands. Use push blocks to move
A chamfer is
a bevel cut that does not remove the entire edge of the stock. Accomplish
it by setting the fence to the angle desired (as you would for a
bevel cut) and then making the number of passes required to shape
the chamfer; that is, if you're cutting chamfers all the way around
a workpiece, start with an end grain pass; then work your way around
the stock. Make one pass; turn the stock 90°; and so on. Continue
until the chamfer is as pronounced as you want it and you've made
the same number of passes on all sides of the stock. This way each
edge will be cut to the same depth and the chamfer will be even
at all points.
Octagons are formed by making repeat passes on all four corners
of square stock.
formed by making bevel cuts on the four corners of a square piece
of stock that has been sawn and jointed (Figure
6-18). Warning: If you work with the fence at an open angle,
work with extreme caution. Use push blocks to move the stock.
Make the cuts as diagrammed in Figure
6-19 to remove the corners of the square and form four new faces.
When you must make more than one pass, don't change the depth of
cut. Make the same number of passes on each corner.
To form an octagon, start with a square piece of stock. When
you must make more than one pass, don't change the depth-of-cut
setting. Click on image for larger view.
These are examples of forms you can produce by using the jointer
for tapering. They can be used as legs for tables, chairs,
and so on.
techniques allow you to form tapers like those shown in Figure
the procedure calls for a stop block that is used to position the
stock for the start of the cut. The stop block can be clamped directly
to the jointer fence.
Use an extra-long
fence extension with stop blocks like the one shown in Figure
6-21 when a tapered cut must start and stop on the stock being
cut. The extension, which is diagrammed in Figure
6-22, is made long enough to provide extra support for the stock
and the blocks are held in place with clamps so their position can
be adjusted to suit the taper being cut.
Tapering cuts are easier to do when you work with an extra-long
fence extension that has its own stop blocks.
To cut a taper
that is, for example, 10" long and 1/4" deep, set the infeed table
for a 1/4" depth of cut, and clamp the stop block 10" away from
the topmost point of the knives' cutting circle. Brace the end of
the stock against the stop block, pivot the guard, and then slowly
lower the stock to make contact with the outfeed table. Turn the
machine on. Use a push block and push stick to gradually feed the
stock while you maintain contact between the stock and the infeed
and outfeed tables.
Construction details of a fence extension used for tapering.
Click on image for larger view.
are longer than the infeed table must be handled differently. If,
for example, the taper is to be 20" long and 1/4" deep on all four
sides, mark the stock into two 10" divisions and set the depth of
cut at 1/8". Place the stock so the line indicating the first 10"
division is at the uppermost point of the knives' cutting circle
and make two passes on all four sides. This will result in a taper
10" long and 1/4" deep. Reposition the stock at the 20" mark. Then
make two passes on all four sides. You will then have a taper- 20"
long and 1/4" deep.
The width of the edge rabbet will be the distance from the
outer corner of the knives to the fence.
is the process of removing part of the thickness of the stock along
an edge to produce a lip or tongue. It's a fast and accurate way
of making strong, interlocking corner joints or for recessing a
panel into a frame.
To set up to
cut an edge rabbet, first unplug the machine. Check that the knives
are evenly adjusted from side-to-side and that they extend 1/32"
beyond the left side of the outfeed table. Warning: If the knives
aren't properly positioned, the stock may not clear the side of
the outfeed table when the cut is made. Pull the fence lock
handle out, unlock the fence, and move it toward the left side of
the table (away from the drive shaft). The width of the rabbet will
be the distance from the outer corner of the knives to the fence
When you're satisfied that the setup is correct, lock the fence
Use the fence extension to provide support when cutting an
will cut rabbets up to 3/8" deep, but never try to remove more than
1/8" of stock in a single pass. For deeper cuts, begin with the
depth of cut set at 1/8"; then increase it after each pass. If you're
making several rabbets to match, machine all pieces at each setting
before changing the depth of cut.
end rabbets (Figure
6-24), there is a tendency for wood to split out or splinter
at the end of the cut. As with end grain jointing, splintering can
be reduced by taking very light cuts and by feeding the stock more
slowly. You can also use a utility knife or chisel to score the
wood fibers before rabbeting.
When you need rabbets, tongues, or tenons on narrow pieces,
do the work on pieces of stock wide enough to be safely handled
and then rip them on the table saw.
Follow the pattern
illustrated in Figure
6-25 when you need rabbets, tongues, or tenons on narrow stock.
After using the jointer, use the table saw to rip the material into
correct widths. Warning: Never try to rabbet stock which will
have less than 10" of support against the tables and fence or a
piece so narrow that your hands will cross into the danger zone.
(A) A tongue or a tenon is formed on the edge of stock by
making two rabbet cuts. (B) Tongues or tenons on the end of
stock are done this way. Always use a fence extension to provide
tenons are made on the edge and end of stock in the same manner
as that described in Edge Rabbeting. The difference
is that the first cut is followed by a second one that is made after
the stock has been turned around (Figure 6-26). The thickness of
the tongue or tenon will be the stock thickness minus two times
the width of the cut. Length, as in rabbeting, is controlled by
the depth of cut.
When a tongue
or tenon is located across the end grain, you must use a fence extension
for additional support. Chip out is a problem with end grain jointing,
so you'll need to make light passes and form the tongues or tenons
before jointing the edges of the stock.